Understanding recording hardware

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What hardware you need to get started recording is dependant on what type of music you want to make. In any case, you will need a DAW, but what about the hardware requirements? There are typically two ways to make music -

Audio recording

If you want to record vocals or other acoustic instruments, you will need to get yourself an audio interface and some microphones. An audio interface is also needed for getting other audio signals into your computer, eg. A line in signal from a guitar effects processor.


A basic audio interface that connects up to your computer via a USB cable

The software required would be a DAW, which allows the recording, editing and mixing of digitized audio.


Audio waveform being recorded into Qtractor

MIDI recording

If your intended workflow is more orientated towards virtual instruments inside of your computer, you would do this by using MIDI, which requires no external equipment.

You can optionally get yourself a MIDI keyboard, which will let you enter the notes in the software by playing them on a piano-like keyboard.


The M-Audio Keystation is a four octave USB MIDI keyboard

Some people prefer a graphical or non-realtime way of entering notes by drawing them on the screen. If you are starting off with music production, this is a way to become familiar with recording software, and you can start immediately! You can then purchase equipment as your needs grow.

Software required would be a MIDI sequencer, which allows recording and editing of MIDI data, which can be played through various virtual instruments, eg. synths, drum machines, virtual pianos, etc.


Notes being manually drawn into Ardour's MIDI sequencer and being played through the TAL NoizeM4k3r synth

What is an audio interface?

An audio interface is a device that facilitates the input and output of audio signals to and from your computer. Computers already have audio interfaces, or sound cards, built in. While they are much better quality than they used to be, they still lack in quality for professional audio recording. On top of that, they are also very limited in features, not least the lack of MIDI features. Most built in sound cards have only one stereo input and output. If you are serious about audio recording, you will be much better served by getting an external audio interface. There are many to choose from, with varying features, but even budget interfaces these days are very capable of allowing you to achieve good quality recordings.

Linux audio interface support

Choosing an external audio interface that best suits your needs can be time consuming. When choosing an audio interface to run under Linux, even more care needs to be taken. Unfortunately, compared to Windows and Mac, there are not as many devices that have support under Linux. Class compliant interfaces should work but they are not as common as they should be. Some manufacturers, while not releasing Linux specific drivers, have been helpful with information that has led to some interfaces having open source drivers created by the community.

Having said all that, there are many high end devices that are supported, it's just a matter of finding out which ones.

Where to find out if a device is supported

ALSA (Advanced Linux Sound Architecture) provides driver support for pretty much every supported audio interface on Linux, with the exception of firewire devices, which are supported by the FFADO project. If you're looking to find out if a device is supported under Linux, ALSA support is most likely what you will be looking for.

List of supported devices at the ALSA Project website

This is not a definitive guide but is a good starting point and might confirm for you if an interface you have in mind, is supported. If a device isn't listed, it doesn't necessarily mean it is not supported. In general, it is best to ask questions before committing to making a purchase. The Linuxmusicians forum is a useful place for this, as is the Linux Audio Users mailing list.

If you have a firewire device, check out the FFADO (Free FireWire Audio Drivers) project for driver support. This project provides open source drivers for many firewire devices.

List of supported devices at the FFADO website

Pros and cons of various interface types

USB 1.1

Most USB 1.1 interfaces are class complaint, meaning, they should work out of the box on Linux, or any operating system, with no special drivers. USB 1.1 is quite old and has restricted bandwidth compared to what is available today. For modest work, this shouldn't be a problem but it does restrict how many inputs and outputs a USB 1.1 interface can have, and can also restrict sample rate and bit depth, eg. The Edirol AU-25 is a USB 1.1 device capable of 24 bit/96khz, however, due to bandwidth limitations, 24/96 is restricted to either playback or recording, not both at the same time.

USB 2.0

USB 2.0 devices have larger bandwidth and can handle more channels than USB 1.1, but a lot of these devices aren't class compliant. While this is the case, some are class compliant and others do work due to drivers being worked on by the community. Just be careful when doing your research as support for these devices under Linux is hit and miss. This situation has somewhat improved in recent years with manufacturers making some USB 2.0 devices class compliant, due to the popularity of Ipads. Android has also recently (July 2014) included a patch that will allow for class compliant audio interface support. This may further improve the situation.

USB 3.0

Currently there are very little USB 3.0 audio interfaces, let alone any that are likely to be supported on Linux. The bandwidth of USB 2.0 is sufficient for audio work, even with high channel counts. USB 3.0 offers little gains and so far, companies have been reluctant to release audio interfaces that support it.

FireWire

FireWire devices have good performance if they are supported and are capable of a high number of inputs and outputs at high sample rates/bit depth and are good for low latency audio.

PCI

PCI device performance is also very good. These devices have large bandwidth, allowing for a high number of inputs and outputs and high sample rates/bit depth.

Converters and Preamps

Some audio interfaces only contain analog to digital/digital to analog converters and don't include preamps. This is another thing to consider. Some include both and allow you to bypass the preamp if you prefer. This way you can use an external preamp and not be tied to the one that is built is. Be sure to check an interfaces specifications to know which one you are getting. Having said that most newer interfaces include both converters and preamps.

Feature Considerations

Audio interfaces provide various types of inputs and outputs. When choosing an interface it is important to get one that suits your needs. A few questions you might ask yourself are -

  • What do I want to record?
  • How many inputs do I need?
  • What kind of inputs do I need?

Input/output types

Interfaces come with different inputs and outputs (I/O). These can be broken up into -

  • Analog audio I/O
  • Digital audio I/O
  • MIDI I/O
  • Sync I/O

The following is an overview of each type of I/O and what they can be used for. If you are starting off, analog audio and MIDI I/O are all you are likely to need so don't get too bogged down with anything else right now.

Analog audio I/O

The most common I/O you will be looking for is analog audio I/O. Common analog audio inputs are mic, line and instrument (sometimes labeled Hi-Z) inputs. These commonly use either Jack, XLR or RCA connectors.

Inputs

This is one of the main areas that will decide your choice of interface. Bedroom musicians don't normally need many inputs. An audio interface with two inputs is usually sufficient in this case. If you are planning on recording a full band live, you will need more. In these cases, interfaces with eight or more inputs may be required, depending on the set up.

Outputs

Output signals are normally at line level. Common connections for this are Jack, XLR and RCA. Again, a bedroom musician is not likely to need more than 2 outputs that will go to their speakers. Other uses for outputs are if you are using more than a two speaker set up or if you are using outboard gear during mixing. In the latter case, you route the audio out of your interface, through your outboard hardware, and back into your DAW.

One final thing to consider is whether the interface has balanced or unbalanced connections. Unbalanced cables (2 core) can be a cause of hum and interference in recording set ups. Using balanced cables (3 core) is a way to combat this issue, but you need balanced connectors to benefit from this. XLR connectors and cables are usually balanced. In the case of Jack connectors, it is harder to tell as balanced (TRS) and unbalanced (TS) input/output connectors look the same. To make sure, you will have to check the specifications of any interface to find out whether the jack connectors are balanced or not.


Some equipment labels balanced (TRS) connections

 

Digital audio I/O

Digital audio I/O on an interface can be useful if you have other hardware that you would like to connect to that also has digital I/O. Examples of this would be connecting preamp units to an interface, or connecting other hardware, eg. amp modelers, reverb or effects units, together. In these cases you can connect these devices together and the audio signal will remain in the digital domain, meaning that there is none of the signal degradation that can happen when going through the analog to digital/digital to analog process. This is a way to maintain your signal to the highest degree.

Common digital protocols are S/PDIF and ADAT (sometimes labeled as optical). S/PDIF is a more consumer end protocol and is used to digitally carry stereo signals. ADAT is a more capable protocol and can send 8 channels of audio, all through one cable. Using digital audio cables is much neater than having loads of analog cables connecting hardware units together and it has the benefit of remaining in the digital domain. Other protocols are AES/EBU (two channels of up to 24-bits/192 kHz over XLR cable) and MADI (64 channels of audio at 48 kHz or 28 channels at 96 kHz).


S/PDIF is a common digital I/O found on many consumer devices

MIDI I/O

Another common I/O on audio interfaces is MIDI. A lot of MIDI devices and controllers can now work over USB but MIDI DIN connectors are still the standard. For example, if you have outboard synths, keyboards, etc, that don't have USB ports, you can still connect them to your computer via standard MIDI cables if your interface has MIDI I/O.


The standard MIDI DIN connectors have been around for over 30 years and can be used to connect any two MIDI capable devices together

SYNC I/O

If you are using multiple devices that you need to have synced up, you would do this through various sync protocols. A common one is wordclock, which uses BNC connectors.

Sample and bit rate support considerations

Most interfaces nowadays have 24bit support and many have support for sample rates of up to 192Khz, although how much benefit 192Khz provides over the more common lower sample rates is something that is debatable. 24 bit allows for greater headroom (signal to noise ratio) so if your interface supports this, it is a good idea to record using it. CD sample rate for reference is 44.1khz at 16bit depth.

Phantom power

Most interfaces that include preamps will have an option for phantom power, which is needed to power condenser microphones and active DI boxes. Even if you don't have the need for it with your current set up, it is no harm to choose an interface with a phantom power option in case you decide you need it down the line. Phantom power is usually supplied by a button labeled +48V.

External power supply

If you want a portable interface this might be something to consider. Interfaces with a decent amount of features will most likely require an external power supply. Some more basic interfaces don't though and can be powered via a USB hub. These might be suitable for portable requirements.

Headphone options

Most interfaces have at least one headphone output. These can be used for playback but they are also useful for direct/hardware monitoring i.e. Looping back the incoming signal directly to the device's outputs/headphone outputs, without being processed by the computer, and therefore, eliminating latency issues.

Which interface is best for me?

Recording set ups can be as simple or as complicated as you want, or need them to be. Let's concentrate for now on a basic set up for a common scenario, the bedroom musician, to show what can be achieved with a modest set up. The interface in this example has two audio inputs with built in preamps, two audio outputs, a MIDI I/O and a headphone output. These are common specifications for basic audio interfaces.

INPUTS
INSTRUMENT INPUT ON INTERFACE
Mic Input 1
Guitar Input 2
MIDI Keyboard MIDI Input
OUTPUTS
OUTPUTS ON INTERFACE PLAYBACK SYSTEM
Outputs 1 and 2 Speakers
Headphones out Headphones

Other than connecting the interface to your computer, that is five devices, all in all, connected up. It is a simple set up but you can achieve quite a lot with it.

  • You can record vocals
  • You can record guitar, either by miking up your amp/acoustic guitar or by plugging your guitar directly into an instrument input and using a software amp, such as Guitarix.
  • If you have a bass guitar, you could also lay down bass tracks. In this case, you would   usually record directly into an instrument input with no processing.
  • If you want to program a drum track, you could use software such as Hydrogen or Drumgizmo, which you could control via your MIDI keyboard.
  • You could also play, and record, virtual instruments such as pianos and synths with your MIDI keyboard.
  • Having headphones will allow you to monitor your recording directly from the interface,    without computer induced latency. This will also provide a reference, alongside your    speakers, when you are mixing your recordings.

Popular Supported Interfaces

Which interface will suit your needs will depend on what you would like to achieve. Some popular interfaces in use amongst Linux users include the following.

INTERFACE TYPE
Edirol UA-25 USB 1.1
Tascam US-122 USB 1.1
M-Audio Fast Track/ Ultra USB 2.0
Focusrite Scarlett 2i4 USB 2.0
PreSonus Audiobox 1818VSL USB 2.0
Focusrite Saffire Pro series FireWire
RME Fireface 400/800 FireWire
Echo AudioFire series FireWire
Presonus Firepod FireWire
Edirol FA101 FireWire
Edirol FA-66 FireWire
RME HDSP PCI
M-Audio Delta 44/66/1010 PCI

For a comprehensive list of known supported hardware, check out this AV Linux forums thread

A few notes about audio interfaces

Some devices may work under Linux but this doesn't mean that bundled software will, eg, the PreSonus Audiobox 1818VSL comes with software which includes effects that can be applied to direct monitoring. While this device works well under Linux, the software doesn't.

In some cases, you may have to update your interfaces firmware so that Linux will support it. For example, the RME Babyface firmware has an update to make the device class compliant. Without this update, the device will not work under Linux.

Don't assume that all models of an audio interface work equally well. A case in point is the Tascam US-122. This is a USB 1.1 device that works well under Linux, however, it has now been superseded by the US-122mk11, which does not work under Linux, as it is a non-class compliant USB 2.0 device. There may be other variants that don't work too. Always make sure the specific model version is supported before splashing out any cash.

There are some mixer desks/audio interface combo devices on the market. Some of these are USB 1.1 interfaces, which give people the impression that you can record out individual tracks at the same time. However, because of the bandwidth of USB 1.1, this isn't possible. You may have a mixer interface with 12 or so input channels but this is all folded down to a stereo output, so you can ultimately only record two individual tracks at a time with these devices. If you are looking to buy a mixer desk/interface combo, make sure it does what you want. Any of these combo devices that are not USB 1.1 usually do record out to individual tracks, but check the specs before committing.

MIDI recording equipment

If you want to record MIDI into your computer, you will need a MIDI keyboard. it is not absolutely essential to have MIDI equipment to create music in a MIDI sequencer, but it is far easier to do so, especially if you want to improvize.

MIDI keyboards come in all shapes and sizes. In addition to piano keys, some have additional features such as drum pads and controller knobs. Drum pads are useful for playing in drum beats if you have a drum plugin such as Fabla. Controller knobs can be useful too if you want to control specific parameters of a plugin, eg. a synths volume control or it's filter cutoff.


The Akai MPK Mini is a compact, two octave MIDI keyboard that includes 8 drum pads and 8 controller knobs

MIDI keyboards come in two varieties, one's that you can connect up to any computer via a USB cable, and one's that use the traditional MIDI DIN connectors. If your keyboard only has MIDI connectors, you will need a soundcard with MIDI inputs to be able to connect your keyboard up to your computer.

A USB MIDI keyboard requires no additonal hardware, although you will only be able to use it with a computer, whereas a keyboard with MIDI connectors can be connected up to other MIDI equipment. Some keyboards come with either one connection type or another, other's come with both.

Note - As with any hardware you are buying to use with Linux, do your research beforehand to make sure it is supported.

Is that all?

As you get more into recording, you may want to invest in other things such as mixing monitors. These are not essential to getting started but you will ultimately get better results as they are intended to sound more neutral than typical computer speakers, meaning that your music will translate more predictably to other speakers and sound systems.

OK, I have recording equipment, what next?

When you have your workflow figured out for your particular recording case, you will need to know how to get audio and/or MIDI into your chosen recording software. To get an overview on how to do this, you can check out the Recording audio and using MIDI in Ardour 3 tutorial. While this tutorial deals solely with Ardour, it shows connections and recording conventions that are similar across almost all DAW's on all platforms, so regardless it is a good starting point on understanding how to get audio and MIDI into your computer.

Summary

As with every purchase, you should aim to future proof yourself and buy the best you can afford within your budget. Make sure you don't buy something that you'll outgrow too quickly. Buy something that will fulfill your needs and any possible future needs to avoid having to go through the process more than once.

And remember, the more you pay, the smaller the gains in quality become. Both budget audio interfaces and MIDI hardware nowadays do an admirable job. Paying more will get you better quality but the gains are increasingly smaller (diminishing returns) as the price range goes up.

Happy recording!

Written by Conor Mc Cormack
 

Comments

Thanks, a complete introduction to music production on Linux! I love this site!! :)

Thanks, this is super helpful!

Native Instruments Komplete Audio 6 works really well, too!

mine acted up, but have heard good things. I recently picked up the Tascam US-4x4. Akai Professional ones are good too.

Forgot to add my KA6 was used. NI makes some good gear though.

Did you have to do anything special to get Linux to recognize the US-4x4? I have a US-2x2 and can't get ubuntu to recognize it as a sound card.

My Steinberg UR22 works out of the box with kernel 3.18.x or higher. By the way AWESOME website. Keep it up! ^__^

I went out and bought a Saffire Pro having found several sites saying that they are supported. Alas they are not. Or not all. Some need a bit of work to get them going at the moment but don't work out the box. Certainly the Pro 24 doesn't. I hope to download the source and have a crack at it at some point. Check out FFADO before buying the Focusrite Saffire range. I am going to keep it and have ordered a Scarlet 2i4, which on the Focusrite blog says only that it may work but seems to have been recommended on the Ubuntu Studio site. Fingers crossed that will work fine as reported..

The Link directing to the AV Linux forums is broken, try this: http://bandshed.net/forum/index.php?topic=2180.0

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Signs That Indicate Your Child May Be a Victim of Bullying Bullying can occur through numerous channels (the Internet, text messages, at school, etc.) and kids do not always tell their parents they are being victimized. This is why you need to know how bullying affects your child, what to watch for and how you can help. Statistics According to the National Center for Educational Statistics, nearly 30 percent of children reported that they were bullied during the 2013 school year. According to the 2010 Youth Voice Project, the reasons children were bullied most often included: • Body shape -- nearly 40 percent • Looks in general -- 55 percent • Race -- 16 percent McCallion and Feder's 2013 report, Student Bullying: Overview of Research, Federal Initiatives, and Legal Issues, states that bullying prevention programs in schools decreases bullying by as much as 25 percent. The Effects of Bullying If your child is the victim of a bully, he/she may begin to have low self-esteem. The severe emotional harm caused by bullying can lead to mental health issues. A 2006 report in the Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, The Relationship Between Childhood Teasing and Later Interpersonal Functioning, states that these low self-esteem issues can continue into adulthood, long after the bullying has ceased. It does not matter if the bullying is physical or verbal; the effects of both are just as harmful. Boys and girls who are bullied report: • Loneliness • Emotional distress • Low self-esteem • Depression • Anxiety As we have seen in the news, some situations are tragic, ending with a bullied child feeling hopeless and like there is no way out, which leads him/her to commit suicide. Warning Signs When it comes to bullying, there is always an imbalance of power. The victim is unable to hold his/her own and requires assistance from an adult. Your child may be embarrassed or feel uncomfortable telling you about what he/she is going through. While each child is different, if you notice any of the signs listed below you may want to take action. Signs that your child may be the victim of bullying include: • Tries to avoid going to school or is afraid to attend school functions and activities • Intentionally hurts himself/herself (burning and cutting, etc.) • Places eating restrictions upon himself/herself • Seems anxious, moody, withdrawn or depressed • Loses interest in friends and hobbies • Has low self-esteem • Seems to lose items frequently while at school • Has an unexplainable injury, damaged belongings • Headaches/stomach aches • Personality changes • Has fewer friends or friends do not call anymore • Drop in grades • Does not want to ride the bus or carpool • Frequently visits the school nurse • Becomes clingy or wants you there when school is dismissed • Trouble sleeping/nightmares • Begins wetting the bed • Extremely tired when he/she wakes up • Cries while falling asleep • Unexpectedly changes his/her route for walking home (especially if the new route is inconvenient) or insistently asks you to drive him/her to school. • Will not use the washrooms at the school/park • Starts bullying younger children/siblings • Extremely hungry when he/she comes home (didn't/couldn't eat lunch) • Avoids talking about computer activities and phone conversations Prevent Your Child from Becoming a Victim Children who are social and have a core group of friends are less likely to be the victim of a bully. Make sure your child knows his/her self-worth and value, as this raises self-esteem levels. If your child has good self-esteem, he/she can confidently deal with a bully, which takes the target off him/her. Consider enrolling your child in a class that teaches him/her how to deal with bullies. Visit site: http://metacafe.com.seobest.website/ grumpy cat nope image

п»їSavannah Cat - What Generation Is Right For You Are you wondering what generation of Savannah cat is right for you? F1 Savannah Cats F1 Savannah range in size from 12 to 26 pounds. F1 Savannahs can be any where from 50% to 82% or more wild blood. The higher the percentage, the higher the chance of wild tenancies. They need a larger litter box such as a tub. Dislike being held. Much like a serval they chose one person to bond with. They get along great with other animals but they disike being held. Will play fetch, give headbutts and walk on a leash with training. F2 savannah cats F2 Savannahs range from 16 to 25 pounds. F2 Savannah cats get along great with other animals. Bond closely with their owners. They love to be pet. Most F2s out of a proper breeding program have about the same size of an F1. F2 Savannahs will have less wild tendencies. Will play fetch, give headbutts and walk on a leash with training. F3 Savannah cats F3 Savannahs will enjoy they whole family. They get along great with other animals. Most love being scratched, although some don&rsquo;t care for long periods of being in a lap. Wild tendencies such as spray do not occur often at this level, remembering to fix your cat is the main factor behind those behaviors. Will play fetch, give headbutts and walk on a leash with training. F3 savannahs are similar in behavior to a F2 savannah kittens for sale but are very reliable with children. F4 &ndash; F8 Savannah cats F4 &ndash; F7 Savannahs enjoy they whole family, they are friendly and very hand on. They still retain the wonderful traits of the savannah breed such as loving water, chirping, walking in a leash and playing fetch but with out the wild tenancies. It may surprise you how large a savannah will be at this generation! If you have smaller children these generations are the most recommended for your family. Will play fetch, give headbutts and walk on a leash with training. My option as a breeder who owns every generations is that F3 savannah cat make the best pet the majority of people. F3 Savannah cats are easy to manage. Not to big and not to small. Once they get older they still love their family with all their fuzzy hearts. They are smart, quick to learn and if from the right breeding just as gorgeous as higher generations. If you are on a strict low budget then I suggest a F5 or lower since they will be lower in price but still spotted with the savannah cat quirks such as fetching with that lovably dog like personality.If your stuck between figuring out the differences between a bengal cat, chausie and Savannah cat. The biggest differences from other breeds is savannah cats are energetic, normally being up all day long. They love to play, talk to you, follow you around. A savannah cats build is very sleek and elegant. My husband is not a cat person but his opinion has always been savannah cats are dogs stuck in cat bodies. He gets a real kick out of the cats fetching their toys ready for play or when they sit straight up and hold an object to study it like a raccoon. But most of all he never knew that a cat of any breed could be so loyal. Every cat he ever meet was "stuck up" or "catty" but savannah cats for sale are so well rounded. I hoped this helps you find your perfect feline. Visit site: http://metacafe.com.seobest.website/ kawaii grumpy cat memes clean

п»їThe Ancient Law of Prosperity &ldquo;True prosperity has a spiritual basis. God is the Source of your supply.&rdquo; So states Catherine Ponder in her wonderful book The Dynamic Laws of Prosperity. Just as we engage God through prayer for that which we claim to be true, and we connect with God spiritually through meditation, so too do we offer tithes to nourish our connection to the Infinite Source of our supply - God. When we give systematically, our giving opens the way to systematic receiving. In my book and prosperity course, 5 GIFTS for an Abundant Life: Create a Consciousness of Wealth, we examine the GIFTS (an acronym for Gratitude, Intentions, Forgiveness, Trust, and Sharing) that can lead us to a life of spiritual as well as financial prosperity. Tithing - giving to God 10% of that which we have received - allows us to enjoy true prosperity with wondrous results. The practice of the ancient law of prosperity is as old as mankind. &ldquo;The ancients intuitively knew that giving, sharing and putting God first financially was the first step to permanent, enduring prosperity,&rdquo; writes Ponder. They believed that ten was the magic number of increase; the very word tithe means tenth. From primitive cultures who offered sacrifices to their gods to the sophisticated civilizations of the Egyptians, Greeks, Romans and others, tithing was a way of life. Some of the most prominent millionaires of the twentieth century attributed their success to the practice of tithing. As a young man, John D. Rockefeller began tithing. His total income for that year was $95.00 from which he tithed $9.50 to his church. Not long after he gave away $531 million dollars. His standard reply to critics of his generosity was &lsquo;God gave me my money.&rsquo; Too many plans for becoming wealthy focus on getting and forget about giving. They lack a spiritual foundation. With God in the equation, wealth (meaning well-being and wholeness) is assured. Tithing is giving thanks for the bounty we receive by returning 10% to our Source &ndash; the person(s) or place(s) where we realize the Presence of God. Tithing is traditionally associated with giving to our place of worship, but it need not be restricted to that. If you hear God in a symphony, you could choose to support the Orchestra playing the music so that they can continue to perform. Tithing is a spiritual practice, not a mechanical obligation. You will prosper and be blessed through what you give. Your tithes re-circulate what you have received so that it can continue to grow and multiply. There are countless stories about financial success stemming from giving the GIFT of Tithing. &ldquo;Since I have been tithing, I have more money to spend, not less,&rdquo; reports one student of a 5 GIFTS class. &ldquo;I put in my tithe last week and suddenly the check that I have been expecting for months came in the mail.&rdquo; &ldquo;Since the start of this class and my stepping into giving the GIFT of Tithing, my house sold,&rdquo; another writes. I have heard many versions of this one: &ldquo;I was thriving financially and in so many ways while I was in your program, but I stopped tithing after it was over and I&rsquo;m back in the same &lsquo;soup&rsquo; I was in before.&rdquo; So what can you expect when you give the gift of Tithing? 1. Fear might show up. &ldquo;I don&rsquo;t have enough now. How can I possibly&hellip;?&rdquo; Rise above your fears. Trust, in yourself and in God, that you can walk this plank. 2. Unexpected expenses show up and you doubt the wisdom of your resolve. Don&rsquo;t give up. You will be surprised when you notice the amount of money you have to use after giving 10% to God. 3. You notice the wisdom and judgment you are using to manage the money you have been given, and you begin to appreciate the ease with which you are able to meet your financial obligations. 4. Your connection with God deepens, your spiritual life expands, and your consciousness of wealth grows. 5. You wonder how you ever managed to live without giving the GIFT of Tithing. Visit site: http://metacafe.com.seobest.website/ cate blanchett movies the lord of the rings

п»їThe Benefits of the Automatic Self-Cleaning Cat Litter Box It started out as a gimmick product being sold on infomercials in the middle of the night. Many people considered it completely unnecessary and a waste of time and money. The product that made people wonder who could think of such a thing is the automatic self-cleaning cat litter box. Cat owners love to brag about how easy they are to take care of. They do not require constant attention and affirmation. They do not need to be walked. Cats are independent and that is something that cat-owners love. Cats also do not have to be let outside to do their business. There is no need to carry a pooper scooper around as you follow a cat. Instead a cat can be easily trained to use a litter box. All the cat owner has to do is clean the litter box every now and then by emptying the contents in the bag. Despite the ease of caring for a cat, there has been no shortage of ways to make it easier to deal with the waste of the cat. Litter that clumps together or that has special deodorizing characteristics is commonplace. While the types of cat litter has changed dramatically, the design of the litter box has not. It is usually a rectangle and it may or may not have a lid to it. The automatic self-cleaning Best Self-Cleaning Litter Box does not change the shape and size of the litter box, but it does have plenty of other benefits to consider. &bull; The litter is always clean &ndash; Unless a cat owner follows their cat to the litter box every time and cleans it immediately after use, the litter box will contain waste products at times. The self-cleaning litter box will automatically rake the waste out of the litter when the cat leaves the box. This helps eliminate the smell and improves the appearance of the litter box in the home. &bull; The waste is in a bag &ndash; The waste will be swept from the litter box directly into a bag. The only thing an owner has to do is pick up the bag and carry it to the trash outside. &bull; There is little maintenance &ndash; If a cat litter is used that clumps when the cat uses the box, there is not much the owner needs to do other than occasionally adding more litter. The box will be kept clean automatically and the litter with waste will be removed. &bull; Cats will enjoy the Automatic Self Cleaning Litter Box &ndash; Although some cat owners will claim their cat does not like their type of litter box, most cats actually prefer it because their litter is always clean when they use the box. &bull; The smell &ndash; The biggest issue with a slitter box is the smell. With the automatic self-cleaning cat litter box, this problem is virtually eliminated. It is much more difficult for people to realize there is a cat in the home thanks to the reduction of the smell from the litter box. The automatic Self-Cleaning Litter Box may have seemed like a gimmick product when it was first introduced and in some ways it was. Once cat owners learned about how much this product could help them and their cat, the gimmick became something that every cat owner should have. Visit site: http://metacafe.com.seobest.website/ ikea catalog 2018 srbija vesti novosti

Payday Cash Advances Explained Furthеr Unfortunately, thiѕ iѕn't аlwауѕ thе case. Thеrе аrе things thаt pop uр in life thаt wе саnnоt control оr саnnоt schedule tо happen. Sоmеthing соuld gо wrong with уоur car, уоur ѕоn соuld fall аnd break hiѕ arm, a pipe bursts. Whаtеvеr thе case mау be, thеѕе аrе unexpected events thаt occur withоut аnу warning аnd аrе nоt in thе budget. A fеw people hаvе thе option tо gо tо thеir banks оr lending companies аnd garner a small loan. Sоmеtimеѕ оnlу a fеw hundred dollars аrе needed аnd gеtting a loan fоr thousands iѕ оut оf thе question. Thеѕе аrе thе timеѕ thаt mау warrant a payday cash advance. A rеаѕоn thаt thеѕе payday cash advances аrе popular аnd ѕоmеtimеѕ аn оnlу option iѕ bесаuѕе thе majority оf lenders dо nоt dо credit checks. In order tо obtain a payday cash advance уоu nееd tо bе оvеr 18 years оf age, hаvе a credit card оr checking account аnd a steady paycheck. Also, mоѕt places require thаt уоu make аt lеаѕt $1,000 a month. Lеt'ѕ ѕау thаt уоu nееd a loan fоr $300. Yоu wоuld nееd tо write a postdated check. Thе date iѕ uѕuаllу determined depending uроn уоur pay schedule. Thе amount оf thе check wоuld bе thе ѕum оf thе amount borrowed аnd thе interest аnd thе principle оn thаt amount. Bе prepared tо pay a high interest rate аnd principle оn a payday cash advance. Also, уоu will nееd tо bе prepared tо pay back thiѕ еntirе amount оn уоur nеxt payday. Bесаuѕе оf thiѕ reason, it iѕ advisable tо gеt аѕ small оf a loan аѕ роѕѕiblе ѕо аѕ nоt tо put уоurѕеlf tоо fаr bеhind with уоur nеxt paycheck. Sоmеtimеѕ thеrе аrе circumstances whеrе уоu саnnоt gеt tо аn establishment аnd in thоѕе situations аn online payday cash advance iѕ аn option. In thеѕе cases, thе amount уоu nееd tо borrow will bе electronically transferred intо уоur bank account frоm thе lender. Of course, thеrе аrе steps thаt аrе tаkеn tо verify аll оf thе information thаt уоu аrе providing. Thе lender wоuld thеn hаvе tо bе аblе tо electronically retrieve thе amount оwеd frоm уоur checking account оn уоur nеxt payday. Thiѕ means thаt уоu wоuld hаvе tо deposit thаt amount intо уоur account bу thе date оf thе postdated check. Sоmе lenders mау wаnt tо deposit thе postdated check thаt уоu gave thеm аt thе timе оf receiving thе loan thе day bеfоrе уоur payday. Thiѕ will ensure thаt thе lender will gеt уоur payment. If уоu аrе likе mе аnd hаvе trouble remembering things thаt аrе оut оf уоur nоrmаl routine, уоu саn аѕk thе lender tо fax уоu a copy оf thе postdated check fоr уоur records аnd tо асt аѕ a reminder. Plеаѕе kеер in mind thаt payday cash advances nееd tо bе made оnlу in thе mоѕt dire оf situations аnd аrе nоt аn answer tо уоur financial problems. In fact, taking tоо mаnу advances hаѕ thе potential tо put уоu in еvеn mоrе debt thаn еvеr before. Bу paying thе extremely high interest rates аnd principles, уоu соuld easily fall intо a situation whеrе уоur paycheck wоuld nоt cover thе amount оf thе loan аnd interest. Sо trу nоt tо tаkе advances tоо often. Fоrtunаtеlу thеrе аrе alternatives tо thе payday cash advances. Thеѕе аrе оftеn overlooked оr ignоrеd аll together, but уоu саn trу tо gеt a small loan frоm a friend оr family member оr ѕоmеtimеѕ уоur employer. In thеѕе cases, уоu саn offer tо pay interest, but I аm ѕurе thаt it wоuldn't bе nеаr thе rate frоm a lender. Yоu саn аlѕо talk tо уоur bank аbоut overdraft, whеrе thе bank will cover уоur account if уоu gо bеlоw thе amount уоu hаvе in it. It wоuld bе wiѕе tо lооk intо thеѕе options firѕt аnd uѕе a payday cash advance аѕ a lаѕt resort. If уоu аrе a person living paycheck tо paycheck аnd hаvе аn emergency оr аn unexpected expense occurs, thеrе аrе options tо hеlр уоu out. Yоu саn borrow thе money frоm friends оr family, overdraft уоur account if уоur bank аllоwѕ that, оr gеt a payday cash advance. Visit site:http://gameone.info/1.php Refinancing Home Loan Ventura

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п»їArticle: How Simple Thinking Will Increase Your E-Commerce Sales Most people think of e-commerce as when you purchase or sell products on the Internet. This is true, but an e-commerce software is much more competent than that and can help you throughout the whole sales process, including marketing and inventory management. We are going to focus on the user experience and how important that is for your business. Last week I went into a normal store to purchase a shirt. Of course this can be done over Internet as well, but I like to feel the quality before purchasing. I went into a store that was totally new for me. Once inside I tried to understand where the men&rsquo;s section was. There were no signs and I had no idea what section I walked through. I tried to find different signs to help me identify where I was and where I could go. The problem was that the store wasn&rsquo;t, in my way of thinking, organized in any way. Everything was mixed in the same place, including having shirts and trousers together. I went to an employee to ask and with the perfect help I got to know where to find my section. A few years ago this would have been impossible for me. I would have exited the store and never dared to go back again. So, why is this story important in an article about e-commerce? If we compare this to an Internet store, we can find that there are a few lessons to be learned: Organization of the information and goods in the store. Showing less information creates less confusion. Good and clear signs to take me where I want to go. If I need help I can easily get it. Looking at the first point this is where we usually can see a big difference between well established companies and newly started businesses. When you create a business you are not always sure of what you should create. This makes it very hard to decide how to organize the information from the beginning. However, it is important to understand that customers come back to well organized stores. Therefore it is better to create an organized structure for the time in business that you are at the moment. Decide to look through the structure on regular basis, for example once every quarter, and do the necessary changes if needed. This will help your users to easier find what they are looking for and want to come back to your store even if they don&rsquo;t find what they are looking for the first time. The second point is hard, especially on Internet with the requirements for online marketing and SEO (search engine optimization). Some sites on Internet seem to be competing for the price on who is showing the most text on their sites. This has become a trend, much because rumors say that this is the way you become higher ranked on the search engines. It is important to understand that your first page is the image you want to give the world about yourself. A lot of businesses have understood this and we can see that among normal home pages the trend has now become to make it cleaner and with less information. With an e-commerce store it is easy to get tempted to show a lot of products on the first page. However, too many ads create a lot of confusion and you tend to sell less. By having fewer ads with less products will make you sell more of those products and more all together. The third and forth points are also a challenging point. It is important to direct people to where you want them to go. This could be a button for shopping cart, special offers, etc. But you also have to think about what kind of customers you have and what goes around in their heads. What your customers are thinking and are looking for when they come to your site. I got good help in the store which made it possible for me to actually purchase a shirt. However, if I am more quiet and shy I wouldn&rsquo;t have asked anyone. This is when it is important to have good signs as a complement to good service. These two points should be considered as one and complement each other. It is a matter of giving the service to the customers to keep them at your site, help them to purchase your products and also give them such a good experience that they want to recommend you to their friends. When creating a service on Internet it is important to always look from the customer&rsquo;s perspective and ask yourself what you would want from your store. To be able to do that you have to study your customers, not only before you launch your Internet store but also afterwards. Do they really see the ad you want them to press? How high is your bounce-rate, i.e. how many people leave your site after coming to your first page? It is also important to understand that you are expert in your field and about your store. You have to understand that people come to your store for the first time. Thinking about this will help you to configure your e-commerce software and website the way that will help you to give a great experience and loyal and happy customers. Visit site: http://gameone.club/ portable charger iphone 6s