mixing

LFO

LFO stands for Low-frequency oscillation. The name comes from the fact that it is an electronic signal with a low frequency, which oscillates to create a rhythmic pulse, or wobble. LFO's are common in synths and help vary their sound capabilities.

A number of popular effects are based around low frequency oscillation, namely chorus, vibrato, phasing, flanging and rotary speaker effects.
 

Sorcer

Sorcer

Sorcer is a polyphonic wavetable synth LV2 plugin from OpenAV. Its sonic fingerprint is one of harsh modulated sub-bass driven walls of sound. Two morphing wavetable oscillators and one sine oscillator provide the generation routines. The LFO can be mapped to wavetable modulation as well as filter cutoff. An ADSR allows for shaping the resulting sound, while a master volume finishes the signal chain.

Fabla

Fabla

Fabla is an open-source LV2 drum sampler plugin instrument from OpenAV. It is ideal for loading up your favorite sampled sounds and bashing away on a MIDI controller. Or if it’s crafty beat programming your after that’s cool too! The ADSR envelope allows the shaping of hi-hats and kicks while the compressor beefs up the sound for those thumping kicks!
 

Basic mixing in Ardour 3

In this video series, LMP invites you to mix an entire track together with us. The stems for the track used in this tutorial can be downloaded below. We'll start with importing the stems into Ardour and editing the song material. Next we will arrange the song before doing a basic balanced mix. Finally, we'll throw on some basic mastering effects, and do a few final touches.

Download the stems used in this tutorial series from this link.

ADSR envelope

An ADSR envelope, which stands for attack, decay, sustain and release, is an envelope used to shape synthesized sounds.

Low-pass filter

A low-pass filter (LPF) is a EQ filter that let's all low frequencies pass through unaffected, but cuts high frequencies. For this reason, it is also sometimes referred to as a high cut filter.

Most software EQ's will allow you to choose what frequency you want the filter to start at. Some will also allow you to configure the amount the frequency drops off below that point.

High-pass filter

A high-pass filter (HPF) is a EQ filter that let's all high frequencies pass through unaffected, but cuts the low frequencies. For this reason, it is also sometimes referred to as a low cut filter.

On hardware mixers, a high pass filter set to a particular frequency is common. This most often is set at 75 Hz. Some hardware units and most software EQ's, however, will allow you to choose what frequency you want the filter to start at. Some will also allow you to configure the amount the frequency drops off below that point.

Insert

Inserts are found in both software and hardware mixers and allow external software and/or hardware to be inserted into the signal path. It does this through send and returns, where sends divert the channels signal to the device/software processor and the return takes the devices outgoing signal and routes it back into the signal path. In this way, you are effectively using an external device as a plugin.

Phase

Phase is the offset of two waveforms expressed in degrees, where 360 degrees corresponds to a delay of one cycle. Waveforms that are 180 degrees out of phase will cancel each other out to complete silence.

Phase problems can occur when two similar sound sources are out of alignment with each other. This causes the drop out of certain frequencies, which can make recordings sound thin if not dealt with.

Convolution

In practice, convolution is being able to apply the sound of speaker cabinets or reverb from real spaces to a dry sound source. This is done by creating an impulse response. These are
captured by generating a known sound signal in an environment, eg. through a guitar speaker cabinet or in a large room. The difference between the dry signal and the recorded signal
is able to be calculated and used in a way that it can be applied to other dry sound sources. Eg. an impulse response captured in a church could be applied to a dry vocal recording to

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